Cerita rakyat malin kundang dalam bahasa inggris

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Cerita rakyat malin kundang dalam bahasa inggris

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Cerita rakyat malin kundang dalam bahasa inggris


At one time, there lived a family of fishermen in the coastal area of ​​Sumatra. The family consists of father, mother and a son named Malin Kundang. Because the family's financial situation is alarming, the father decided to make a living in the country by wading across the wide ocean. So Malin and his mother lived in their huts. A week, two weeks, a month, two months even a year over the length, Malin's father also did not return to his hometown. So that his mother had to replace Malin's father to make a living.

Malin including a smart kid but a bit naughty. He often chasing chickens and hit him with a broom. One day, when Malin was chasing chickens, she tripped over a rock and injured his right arm hit by stones. The wound became etched dilengannya and can not be lost.
After growing up, Malin Kundang feel sorry for her mother who worked hard for a living to raise themselves. He thought to make a living in the country side in hopes of later on when returning home, she was already a wealthy man. Malin interested in the invitation of a merchant ship captain who was once poor now become a wealthy man. Malin Kundang expressed intention to her mother.
His mother was originally less agrees with the intent Malin Kundang, but due to hold urgent Malin, Malin Kundang mother finally agreed though with a heavy heart. After preparing the supplies and equipment to taste, Malin head over to the dock with escorted by her mother. "My son, if you have succeeded and become affluent, do not you forget about your mother and halamannu this village, son," said Ms. Malin Kundang while in tears. Malin ridden ships that increasingly distant, accompanied by Ms. Malin Kundang wave. During their stay in the boat, Malin Kundang lot to learn about seamanship on the crew that have been experienced. Along the way, suddenly climbed Malin Kundang ships were attacked by pirates. All the commodities traders who were on the ship seized by pirates. Even most of the crew and people on the ship were killed by the pirates.
Malin Kundang very lucky he was not killed by the pirates, because when it happened, Malin immediately hid in a small space enclosed by the timber. Malin Kundang adrift amid the sea, until finally the ship was stranded on a beach. With the remaining power available, Malin Kundang walked to the nearest village from the coast. Arriving in the village, Malin Kundang helped by people in the village after previously telling what happened to him. Malin village where stranding is a very fertile village. With tenacity and perseverance in work, Malin gradually managed to become a wealthy man. It has a lot of merchant ships with men of more than 100 people.
After becoming rich, Malin Kundang marry a girl to be his wife. News Malin Kundang who have become wealthy and married to the mother also Malin Kundang. Mother Malin Kundang feel grateful and very happy his son had succeeded. Since then, the mother of Malin Kundang every day go to the dock, waiting for her son might return to his hometown. After a long marriage, Malin and his wife set sail with a large and beautiful ship with crew and a lot of bodyguards.
Malin Kundang mothers who stayed with his son every day, saw a very beautiful ship, into the harbor. He saw two people standing on the deck. He believes that standing was his son and his wife Malin Kundang. Malin Kundang came down from the ship. He was greeted by his mother. Once close enough, his mother saw right dilengan dozen injured people, the more convinced his mother that he was approached Malin Kundang. "Malin Kundang, my son, why did you go so long without sending any news?", She said, hugging Malin Kundang. But what happens then? Malin Kundang immediately release her mother's arms and pushed it down. "Women do not know myself, as my mother's only air admitted," said Malin Kundang to her mother. Malin Kundang pretended not to recognize her mother, embarrassed by her mother who is old and wearing tattered clothes. "She's your mother?", Malin Kundang wife Tanya. "No, he was just a beggar who pretended to be claimed as the mother in order to get my property," Malin said to his wife.
Hearing statement and treated unjustly by his son, Malin Kundang mother very angry. He is not expected her to be a rebellious child. Because of mounting anger, Malin's mother tipped his hand saying "Oh God, if he my son, I sumpahi he became a rock". Not long after the winds roared loud and violent storm destroys the ship came Malin Kundang. After that Malin Kundang body slowly becomes stiff and eventually finally shaped into a rock.

Dengan artikel diatas, saya sebagai author minta maaf jika terjadi kesalahan penulisan, ejaan, danb sebagainya. Terima Kasih karena anda telah membaca artikel Cerita rakyat malin kundang dalam bahasa inggris ini.
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Cerita dongeng binatang dalam bahasa inggris

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cerita dongeng binatang dalam bahasa inggris
Cerita dongeng binatang dalam bahasa inggris - anda baca secara jelas cerita dongeng binatang ini dalam bahasa inggris dapat anda baca di bawah ini :


THE WILD SWANS

Far away in the land to which the swallows fly when it is winter, dwelt a king who had eleven sons, and one daughter, named Eliza. The eleven brothers were princes, and each went to school with a star on his breast, and a sword by his side. They wrote with diamond pencils on gold slates, and learnt their lessons so quickly and read so easily that every one might know they were princes. Their sister Eliza sat on a little stool of plate-glass, and had a book full of pictures, which had cost as much as half a kingdom. Oh, these children were indeed happy, but it was not to remain so always. Their father, who was king of the country, married a very wicked queen, who did not love the poor children at all. They knew this from the very first day after the wedding. In the palace there were great festivities, and the children played at receiving company; but instead of having, as usual, all the cakes and apples that were left, she gave them some sand in a tea-cup, and told them to pretend it was cake. The week after, she sent little Eliza into the country to a peasant and his wife, and then she told the king so many untrue things about the young princes, that he gave himself no more trouble respecting them.
“Go out into the world and get your own living,” said the queen. “Fly like great birds, who have no voice.” But she could not make them ugly as she wished, for they were turned into eleven beautiful wild swans. Then, with a strange cry, they flew through the windows of the palace, over the park, to the forest beyond. It was early morning when they passed the peasant’s cottage, where their sister Eliza lay asleep in her room. They hovered over the roof, twisted their long necks and flapped their wings, but no one heard them or saw them, so they were at last obliged to fly away, high up in the clouds; and over the wide world they flew till they came to a thick, dark wood, which stretched far away to the seashore. Poor little Eliza was alone in her room playing with a green leaf, for she had noother playthings, and she pierced a hole through the leaf, and looked through it at the sun, and it was as if she saw her brothers’ clear eyes, and when the warm sun shone on her cheeks, she thought of all the kisses they had given her. 
One day passed just like another; sometimes the winds rustled through the leaves of the rose-bush, and would whisper to the roses, “Who can be more beautiful than you!” But the roses would shake their heads, and say, “Eliza is.” And when the old woman sat at the cottage door on Sunday, and read her hymn-book, the wind would flutter the leaves, and say to the book, “Who can be more pious than you?” and then the hymn-book would answer “Eliza.” And the roses and the hymn-book told the real truth. At fifteen she returned home, but when the queen saw how beautiful she was, she became full of spite and hatred towards her. Willingly would she have turned her into a swan, like her brothers, but she did not dare to do so yet, because the king wished to see his daughter. Early one morning the queen went into the bath-room; it was built of marble, and had soft cushions, trimmed with the most beautiful tapestry. 
She took three toads with her, and kissed them, and said to one, “When Eliza comes to the bath, seatyourself upon her head, that she may become as stupid as you are.” Then she said to another, “Place yourself on her forehead, that she may become as ugly as you are, and that her father may not know her.” “Rest on her heart,” she whispered to the third, “then she will have evil inclinations, and suffer in consequence.” So she put the toads into the clear water, and they turned green immediately. She next called Eliza, and helped her to undress and get into the bath. As Eliza dipped her head under the water, one of the toads sat on her hair, a second on her forehead, and a third on her breast, but she did not seem to notice them, and when she rose out of the water, there were three red poppies floating upon it. Had not the creatures been venomous or been kissed by the witch, they would have been changed into red roses. 
At all events they became flowers, because they had rested on Eliza’s head, and on her heart. She was too good and too innocent for witchcraft to have any power over her. When the wicked queen saw this, she rubbed her face with walnut-juice, so that she was quite brown; then she tangled her beautiful hair and smeared it with disgusting ointment, till it was quite impossible to recognize the beautiful Eliza.
When her father saw her, he was much shocked, and declared she was not his daughter. No one but the watch-dog and the swallows knew her; and they were only poor animals, and could say nothing. Then poor Eliza wept, and thought of her eleven brothers, who were all away. Sorrowfully, she stole away from the palace, and walked, the whole day, over fields and moors, till she came to the great forest. She knew not in what direction to go; but she was so unhappy, and longed so for her brothers, who had been, like herself, driven out into the world, that she was determined to seek them. She had been but a short time in the wood when night came on, and she quite lost the path; so she laid herself down on the soft moss, offered up her evening prayer, and leaned her head against the stump of a tree. All nature was still, and the soft, mild air fanned her forehead. The light of hundreds of glow-worms shone amidst the grass and the moss, like green fire; and if she touched a twig with her hand, ever so lightly, the brilliant insects fell down around her, like shooting-stars. All night long she dreamt of her brothers. She and they were children again, playing together. 
She saw them writing with their diamond pencils on golden slates, while she looked at the beautiful picture-book which had cost half a kingdom. They were not writing lines and letters, as they used to do; but descriptions of the noble deeds they had performed, and of all they had discovered and seen. In the picture-book, too, everything was living. The birds sang, and the people came out of the book, and spoke to Eliza and her brothers; but, as the leaves turned over, they darted back again to their places, that all might be in order.
When she awoke, the sun was high in the heavens; yet she could not see him, for the lofty trees spread their branches thickly over her head; but his beams were glancing through the leaves here and there, like a golden mist. There was a sweet fragrance from the fresh green verdure, and the birds almost perched upon her shoulders. She heard water rippling from a number of springs, all flowing in a lake with golden sands. Bushes grew thickly round the lake, and at one spot an opening had been made by a deer, through which Eliza went down to the water. The lake was so clear that, had not the wind rustled the branches of the trees and the bushes, so that they moved, they would have appeared as if painted in the depths of the lake; for every leaf was reflected in the water, whether it stood in the shade or the sunshine. As soon as Eliza saw her own face, she was quite terrified at finding it so brown and ugly; but when she wetted her little hand, and rubbed her eyes and forehead, the white skin gleamed forth once more; and, after she had undressed, and dipped herself in the fresh water, a more beautiful king’s daughter could not be found in the wide world. 
As soon as she had dressed herself again, and braided her long hair, she went to the bubbling spring, and drank some water out of the hollow of her hand. Then she wandered far into the forest, not
knowing whither she went. She thought of her brothers, and felt sure that God would not forsake her. It is God who makes the wild apples grow in the wood, to satisfy the hungry, and He now led her to one of these trees, which was so loaded with fruit, that the boughs bent beneath the weight. Here she held her noonday repast, placed props under the boughs, and then went into the gloomiest depths of the forest. It was so still that she could hear the sound of her own footsteps, as well as the rustling of every withered leaf which she crushed under her feet. Not a bird was to be seen, not a sunbeam could penetrate through the large, dark boughs of the trees. Their lofty trunks stood so close together, that, when she looked before her, it seemed as if she were enclosed within trellis-work. Such solitude she had never known before. The night was very dark. Not a single glow-worm glittered in the moss.
Sorrowfully she laid herself down to sleep; and, after a while, it seemed to her as if the branches of the trees parted over her head, and that the mild eyes of angels looked down upon her from heaven. When she awoke in the morning, she knew not whether she had dreamt this, or if it had really been so. Then she continued her wandering; but she had not gone many steps forward, when she met an old woman with berries in her basket, and she gave her a few to eat. Then Eliza asked her if she had not seen eleven princes riding through the forest. “No,” replied the old woman, “But I saw yesterday eleven swans, with gold crowns on their heads, swimming on the river close by.” Then she led Eliza a little distance farther to a sloping bank, and at the foot of it wound a little river. 
The trees on its banks stretched their long leafy branches across the water towards each other, and where the growth prevented them from meeting naturally, the roots had torn themselves away from the ground, so that the branches might mingle their foliage as they hung over the water. Eliza bade the old woman farewell, and walked by the flowing river, till she reached the shore of the open sea. And there, before the young maiden’s eyes, lay the glorious ocean, but not a sail appeared on its surface, not even a boat could be seen. How was she to go farther? She noticed how the countless pebbles on the sea-shore had been smoothed and rounded by the action of the water. Glass, iron, stones, everything that lay there mingled together, had taken its shape from the same power, and felt as smooth, or even smoother than her own delicate hand. “The water rolls on without weariness,” she said, “till all that is hard becomes smooth; so will I be unwearied in my task. Thanks for your lessons, bright rolling waves; my heart tells me you will lead me to my dear brothers.” On the foam-covered sea-weeds, lay eleven white swan feathers, which she gathered up and placed together. 
Drops of water lay upon them; whether they were dew-drops or tears no one could say. Lonely as it was on the sea-shore, she did not observe it, for the ever-moving sea showed more changes in a few hours than the most varying lake could produce during a whole year. If a black heavy cloud arose, it was as if the sea said, “I can look dark and angry too;” and then the wind blew, and the waves turned to white foam as they rolled. When the wind slept, and the clouds glowed with the red sunlight, then the sea looked like a rose leaf. But however quietly its white glassy surface rested, there was still a motion on the shore, as its waves rose and fell like the breast of a sleeping child. When the sun was about to set, Eliza saw eleven white swans with golden crowns on their heads, flying towards the land, one behind the other, like a long white ribbon. Then Eliza went down the slope from the shore, and hid herself behind the bushes. The swans alighted quite close to her and flapped their great white wings. As soon as the sun had disappeared under the water, the feathers of the swans fell off, and eleven beautiful princes, Eliza’s brothers, stood near her. She uttered a loud cry, for, although they were very much changed, she knew them immediately. She sprang into their arms, and called them each byname. 
Then, how happy the princes were at meeting their little sister again, for they recognized her, although she had grown so tall and beautiful. They laughed, and they wept, and very soon understood how wickedly their mother had acted to them all. “We brothers,” said the eldest, “fly about as wild swans, so long as the sun is in the sky; but as soon as it sinks behind the hills, we recover our human shape. Therefore must we always be near a resting place for our feet before sunset; for if we should be flying towards the clouds at the time we recovered our natural shape as men, we should sink deep into the sea.
We do not dwell here, but in a land just as fair, that lies beyond the ocean, which we have to cross for a long distance; there is no island in our passage upon which we could pass, the night; nothing but a little rock rising out of the sea, upon which we can scarcely stand with safety, even closely crowded together. If the sea is rough, the foam dashes over us, yet we thank God even for this rock; we have passed whole nights upon it, or we should never have reached our beloved fatherland, for our flight across the sea occupies two of the longest days in the year. We have permission to visit out home once in every year, and to remain eleven days, during which we fly across the forest to look once more at the palace where our father dwells, and where we were born, and at the church, where our mother lies buried. Here it seems as if the very trees and bushes were related to us. The wild horses leap over the plains as we have seen them in our childhood. The charcoal burners sing the old songs, to which we have danced as children. This is our fatherland, to which we are drawn by loving ties; and here we have found you, our dear little sister., Two days longer we can remain here, and then must we fly away to a beautiful land which is not our home; and how can we take you with us? We have neither ship nor boat.”
“How can I break this spell?” said their sister. And then she talked about it nearly the whole night, only slumbering for a few hours. Eliza was awakened by the rustling of the swans’ wings as they soared above. Her brothers were again changed to swans, and they flew in circles wider and wider, till they were far away; but one of them, the youngest swan, remained behind, and laid his head in his sister’s lap, while she stroked his wings; and they remained together the whole day. Towards evening, the rest came back, and as the sun went down they resumed their natural forms. “To-morrow,” said one, “we shall fly away, not to return again till a whole year has passed. But we cannot leave you here. Have you courage to go with us? My arm is strong enough to carry you through the wood; and will not all our wings be strong enough to fly with you over the sea?”
“Yes, take me with you,” said Eliza. Then they spent the whole night in weaving a net with the pliant willow and rushes. It was very large and strong. Eliza laid herself down on the net, and when the sun rose, and her brothers again became wild swans, they took up the net with their beaks, and flew up to the clouds with their dear sister, who still slept. The sunbeams fell on her face, therefore one of the swans soared over her head, so that his broad wings might shade her. They were far from the land when Eliza woke. She thought she must still be dreaming, it seemed so strange to her to feel herself being carried so high in the air over the sea. By her side lay a branch full of beautiful ripe berries, and a bundle of sweet roots; the youngest of her brothers had gathered them for her, and placed them by her side. She smiled her thanks to him; she knew it was the same who had hovered over her to shade her with his wings. 
They were now so high, that a large ship beneath them looked like a white sea-gull skimming the waves.A great cloud floating behind them appeared like a vast mountain, and upon it Eliza saw her own shadow and those of the eleven swans, looking gigantic in size. Altogether it formed a more beautiful picture than she had ever seen; but as the sun rose higher, and the clouds were left behind, the shadowy picture vanished away. Onward the whole day they flew through the air like a winged arrow, yet more slowly than usual, for they had their sister to carry. The weather seemed inclined to be stormy, and Eliza watched the sinking sun with great anxiety, for the little rock in the ocean was not yet in sight. It appeared to her as if the swans were making great efforts with their wings. Alas! she was the cause of their not advancing more quickly. When the sun set, they would change to men, fall into the sea and be drowned. Then she offered a prayer from her inmost heart, but still no appearance of the rock. Dark clouds came nearer, the gusts of wind told of a coming storm, while from a thick, heavy mass of clouds the lightning burst forth flash after flash. The sun had reached the edge of the sea, when the swans darted down so swiftly, that Eliza’s head trembled; she believed they were falling, but they again soared onward. Presently she caught sight of the rock just below them, and by this time the sun was half hidden by the waves. The rock did not appear larger than a seal’s head thrust out of the water. They sunk so rapidly, that at the moment their feet touched the rock, it shone only like a star, and at last disappeared like the last spark in a piece of burnt paper. Then she saw her brothers standing closely round her with their arms linked together. There was but just room enough for them, and not the smallest space to spare. The sea dashed against the rock, and covered them with spray. The heavens were lighted up with continual flashes, and peal after peal of thunder rolled. But the sister and brothers sat holding each other’s hands, and singing hymns, from which they gained hope and courage. In the early dawn the air became calm and still, and at sunrise the swans flew away from the rock with Eliza. 
The sea was still rough, and from their high position in the air, the white foam on the dark green waves looked like millions of swans swimming on the water. As the sun rose higher, Eliza saw before her, floating on the air, a range of mountains, with shining masses of ice on their summits.
In the centre, rose a castle apparently a mile long, with rows of columns, rising one above another, while, around it, palm-trees waved and flowers bloomed as large as mill wheels. She asked if this was the land to which they were hastening. The swans shook their heads, for what she beheld were the beautiful ever-changing cloud palaces of the “Fata Morgana,” into which no mortal can enter. Eliza was still gazing at the scene, when mountains, forests, and castles melted away, and twenty stately churches rose in their stead, with high towers and pointed gothic windows.
Eliza even fancied she could hear the tones of the organ, but it was the music of the murmuring sea which she heard. As they drew nearer to the churches, they also changed into a fleet of ships, which seemed to be sailing beneath her; but as she looked again, she found it was only a sea mist gliding over the ocean. So there continued to pass before her eyes a constant change of scene, till at last she saw the real land to which they were bound, with its blue mountains, its cedar forests, and its cities and palaces. Long before the sun went down, she sat on a rock, in front of a large cave, on the floor of which the over-grown yet delicate green creeping plants looked like an embroidered carpet. “Now we shall expect to hear what you dream of to-night,” said the youngest brother, as he showed his sister her bedroom.
“Heaven grant that I may dream how to save you,” she replied. And this thought took such hold upon her mind that she prayed earnestly to God for help, and even in her sleep she continued to pray. Then it appeared to her as if she were flying high in the air, towards the cloudy palace of the “Fata Morgana,” and a fairy came out to meet her, radiant and beautiful in appearance, and yet very much like the old woman who had given her berries in the wood, and who had told her of the swans with golden crowns on their heads. “Your brothers can be released,” said she, “if you have only courage and perseverance. True, water is softer than your own delicate hands, and yet it polishes stones into shapes; it feels no pain as your fingers would feel, it has no soul, and cannot suffer such agony and
torment as you will have to endure.
Do you see the stinging nettle which I hold in my hand? Quantities of the same sort grow round the cave in which you sleep, but none will be of any use to you unless they grow upon the graves in a churchyard. These you must gather even while they burn blisters on your hands. Break them to pieces with your hands and feet, and they will become flax, from which you must spin and weave eleven coats with long sleeves; if these are then thrown over the eleven swans, the spell will be broken. But remember, that from the moment you commence your task until it is finished, even should it occupy years of your life, you must not speak. The first word you utter will pierce through the hearts of your brothers like a deadly dagger. Their lives hang upon your tongue. Remember all I have told you.” And as she finished speaking, she touched her hand lightly with the nettle, and a pain, as of burning fire, awoke Eliza.
It was broad daylight, and close by where she had been sleeping lay a nettle like the one she had seen in her dream. She fell on her knees and offered her thanks to God. Then she went forth from the cave to begin her work with her delicate hands. She groped in amongst the ugly nettles, which burnt great blisters on her hands and arms, but she determined to bear it gladly if she could only release her dear brothers. So she bruised the nettles with her bare feet and spun the flax. At sunset her brothers returned and were very much frightened when they found her dumb. They believed it to be some new sorcery of their wicked step-mother. But when they saw her hands they understood what she was doing on their behalf, and the youngest brother wept, and where his tears fell the pain ceased, and the burning blisters vanished. She kept to her work all night, for she could not rest till she had released her dear brothers. During the whole of the following day, while her brothers were absent, she sat in solitude, but never before had the time flown so quickly. 
One coat was already finished and she had begun the second, when she heard the huntsman’s horn, and was struck with fear. The sound came nearer and nearer, she heard the dogs barking, and fled with terror into the cave. She hastily bound together the nettles she had gathered into a bundleand sat upon them. Immediately a great dog came bounding towards her out of the ravine, and then another and another; they barked loudly, ran back, and then came again. In a very few minutes all the huntsmen stood before the cave, and the handsomest of them was the king of the country. He advanced towards her, for he had never seen a more beautiful maiden.
“How did you come here, my sweet child?” he asked. But Eliza shook her head. She dared not speak, at the cost of her brothers’ lives. And she hid her hands under her apron, so that the king might not see how she must be suffering. “Come with me,” he said; “here you cannot remain. If you are as good as you are beautiful, I will dress you in silk and velvet, I will place a golden crown upon your head, and you shall dwell, and rule, and make your home in my richest castle.” And then he lifted her on his horse. She wept and wrung her hands, but the king said, “I wish only for your happiness. A time will come when you will thank me for this.” And then he galloped away over the mountains, holding her before him on this horse, and the hunters followed behind them. 
As the sun went down, they approached a fair royal city, with churches, and cupolas. On arriving at the castle the king led her into marble halls, where large fountains played, and where the walls and the ceilings were covered with rich paintings. But she had no eyes for all these glorious sights, she could only mourn and weep. Patiently she allowed the women to array her in royal robes, to weave pearls in her hair, and draw soft gloves over her blistered fingers. As she stood before them in all her rich dress, she looked so dazzingly beautiful that the court bowed low in her presence. Then the king declared his intention of making her his bride, but the archbishop shook his head, and whispered that the fair youngmaiden was only a witch who had blinded the king’s eyes and bewitched his heart. But the king would not listen to this; he ordered the music to sound, the daintiest dishes to be served, and the loveliest maidens to dance.
After wards he led her through fragrant gardens and lofty halls, but not a smile appeared on her lips or sparkled in her eyes. She looked the very picture of grief. Then the king opened the door of a little chamber in which she. was to sleep; it was adorned with rich green tapestry, and resembled the cave in which he had found her. On the floor lay the bundle of flax which she had spun from the nettles, and under the ceiling hung the coat she had made. These things had been brought away from the cave as curiosities by one of the huntsmen.
“Here you can dream yourself back again in the old home in the cave,” said the king; “here is the work with which you employed yourself. It will amuse you now in the midst of all this splendor to think of that time.” When Eliza saw all these things which lay so near her heart, a smile played around her mouth, and the crimson blood rushed to her cheeks. She thought of her brothers, and their release made her so joyful that she kissed the king’s hand. Then he pressed her to his heart. Very soon the joyous church bells announced the marriage feast, and that the beautiful dumb girl out of the wood was to be made the queen of the country. Then the archbishop whispered wicked words in the king’s ear, but they did not sink into his heart. The marriage was still to take place, and the archbishop himself had to place the crown on the bride’s head; in his wicked spite, he pressed the narrow circlet so tightly on her forehead that it caused her pain. But a heavier weight encircled her heart—sorrow for her brothers. 
She felt not bodily pain. Her mouth was closed; a single word would cost the lives of her brothers. But she loved the kind, handsome king, who did everything to make her happy more and more each day; she loved him with all her heart, and her eyes beamed with the love she dared not speak. Oh! if she had only been able to confide in him and tell him of her grief. But dumb she must remain till her task was finished. Therefore at night she crept away into her little chamber, which had been decked out to look like the cave, and quickly wove one coat after another. But when she began the seventh she found she had no more flax. She knew that the nettles she wanted to use grew in the churchyard, and that she must pluck them herself. How should she get out there? “Oh, what is the pain in my fingers to the torment which my heart endures?” said she. “I must venture, I shall not be denied help from heaven.” Then with a trembling heart, as if she were about to perform a wicked deed, she crept into the garden in the broad moonlight, and passed through the narrow walks and the deserted streets, till she reached the churchyard. 
Then she saw on one of the broad tombstones a group of ghouls. These hideous creatures took offtheir rags, as if they intended to bathe, and then clawing open the fresh graves with their long, skinny fingers, pulled out the dead bodies and ate the flesh! Eliza had to pass close by them, and they fixed their wicked glances upon her, but she prayed silently, gathered the burning nettles, and carried them home with her to the castle. One person only had seen her, and that was the archbishop—he was awake while everybody was asleep. Now he thought his opinion was evidently correct. All was not right with the queen. She was a witch, and had bewitched the king and all the people. Secretly he told the king what he had seen and what he feared, and as the hard words came from his tongue, the carved images of the saints shook their heads as if they would say. “It is not so. Eliza is innocent.”

But the archbishop interpreted it in another way; he believed that they witnessed against her, and were shaking their heads at her wickedness. Two large tears rolled down the king’s cheeks, and he went home with doubt in his heart, and at night he pretended to sleep, but there came no real sleep to his eyes, for he saw Eliza get up every night and disappear in her own chamber. From day to day his brow became darker, and Eliza saw it and did not understand the reason, but it alarmed her and made her heart tremble for her brothers. Her hot tears glittered like pearls on the regal velvet and diamonds, while all who saw her were wishing they could be queens. In the mean time she had almost finished her task; only one coat of mail was wanting, but she had no flax left, and not a single nettle. 
Once more only, and for the last time, must she venture to the churchyard and pluck a few handfuls. She thought with terror of the solitary walk, and of the horrible ghouls, but her will was firm, as well as her trust in Providence. Eliza went, and the king and the archbishop followed her. They saw her vanish through the wicket gate into the churchyard, and when they came nearer they saw the ghouls sitting on the tombstone, as Eliza had seen them, and the king turned away his head, for he thought she was with them—she whose head had rested on his breast that very evening. “The people must condemn her,” said he, and she was very quickly condemned by every one to suffer death by fire. Away from the gorgeous regal halls was she led to a dark, dreary cell, where the wind whistled through the iron bars. Instead of the velvet and silk dresses, they gave her the coats of mail which she had woven to cover her, and the bundle of nettles for a pillow; but nothing they could give her would have pleased her more. 
She continued her task with joy, and prayed for help, while the street-boys sang jeering songs about her, and not a soul comforted her with a kind word. Towards evening, she heard at the grating the flutter of a swan’s wing, it was her youngest brother—he had found his sister, and she sobbed for joy, although she knew that very likely this would be the last night she would have to live. But still she could hope, for her task was almost finished, and her brothers were come. Then the archbishop arrived, to be with her during her last hours, as he had promised the king. 

But she shook her head, and begged him, by looks and gestures, not to stay; for in this night she knew she must finish her task, otherwise all her pain and tears and sleepless nights would have been suffered in vain. The archbishop withdrew, uttering bitter words against her; but poor Eliza knew that she was innocent, and diligently continued her work.

The little mice ran about the floor, they dragged the nettles to her feet, to help as well as they could; and the thrush sat outside the grating of the window, and sang to her the whole night long, as sweetly as possible, to keep up her spirits. It was still twilight, and at least an hour before sunrise, when the eleven brothers stood at the castle gate, and demanded to be brought before the king. They were told it could not be, it was yet almost night, and as the king slept they dared not disturb him. They threatened, they entreated. Then the guard appeared, and even the king himself, inquiring what all the noise meant. At this moment the sun rose. The eleven brothers were seen no more, but eleven wild swans flew away over the castle.
And now all the people came streaming forth from the gates of the city, to see the witch burnt. An old horse drew the cart on which she sat. They had dressed her in a garment of coarse sackcloth. Her lovely hair hung loose on her shoulders, her cheeks were deadly pale, her lips moved silently, while her fingers still worked at the green flax. Even on the way to death, she would not give up her task. The ten coats of mail lay at her feet, she was working hard at the eleventh, while the mob jeered her and said, “See the witch, how she mutters! She has no hymn-book in her hand. She sits there with her ugly sorcery. Let us tear it in a thousand pieces.”
And then they pressed towards her, and would have destroyed the coats of mail, but at the same moment eleven wild swans flew over her, and alighted on the cart. Then they flapped their large wings, and the crowd drew on one side in alarm.


  • “It is a sign from heaven that she is innocent,” whispered many of them; but they ventured not to say it aloud.
  • As the executioner seized her by the hand, to lift her out of the cart, she hastily threw the eleven coats of mail over the swans, and they immediately became eleven handsome princes; but the youngest had a swan’s wing, instead of an arm; for she had not been able to finish the last sleeve of the coat.
  • “Now I may speak,” she exclaimed. “I am innocent.”


Then the people, who saw what happened, bowed to her, as before a saint; but she sank lifeless in her brothers’ arms, overcome with suspense, anguish, and pain. “Yes, she is innocent,” said the eldest brother; and then he related all that had taken place; and while he spoke there rose in the air a fragrance as from millions of roses. Every piece of faggot in the pile had taken root, and threw out branches, and appeared a thick hedge, large and high, covered with roses; while above all bloomed a white and shining flower, that glittered like a star. This flower the king plucked, and placed in Eliza’s bosom, when she awoke from her swoon, with peace and happiness in her heart. And all the church bells rang of themselves, and the birds came in great troops. And a marriage procession returned to the castle, such as no king had ever before seen.



Dengan artikel diatas, saya sebagai author minta maaf jika terjadi kesalahan penulisan, ejaan, danb sebagainya. Terima Kasih karena anda telah membaca artikel Cerita dongeng binatang dalam bahasa inggris ini.
ReadmoreCerita dongeng binatang dalam bahasa inggris

Kata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris

Halo Sobat "http://onfa.blogspot.com/" kali ini kita akan membahas tentang Kata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris yang sangat menarik untuk anda baca dan pelajari. semoga dengan artikel Kata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris yang telah saya tulis ini dapat membantu dan bermanfaat bagi anda. Langsung saja, bacalah artikel berikut :

Kata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris

Kata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris - anda bisa melihat dan membaca beberapa kata-kata patah hati dalam bahasa inggris secara jelas dan lengkap di bawah ini :


  • * Every dark light is followed by a light morning. Malam yang gelap selalu diikuti pagi yang tenang.
  • * “A heartbreak is a blessing from God. It’s just his way of letting you realize he saved you from the wrong one.” (Anonim) Artinya: “Patah hati adalah berkah Tuhan. Itu adalah cara Tuhan menyelamatkanmu dari orang yang salah.”
  • * “Sometimes I wish I were a little kid again, skinned knees are easier to fix than broken hearts.” (Anonim) Artinya: “Terkadang aku ingin jadi anak kecil lagi, lutut yang terluka lebih mudah disembuhkan daripada hati yang tersakiti.”
  • * “Sadness flies away on the wings of time.” (Jean de La Fontaine) Artinya: “Kesedihan terbang menjauh dalam sayap-sayap sang waktu.”
  • * “Sometimes, when one person is missing, the whole world seems depopulated.” (Lamartine) Artinya: “Terkadang jika kita kehilangan seseorang, rasanya populasi dunia berkurang.”
  • * “God is closest to those with broken hearts.” (Anonim) Artinya: “Tuhan berada paling dekat dengan mereka yang sedang patah hatinya.”
  • * “I don’t know why they call it heartbreak. It feels like every other part of my body is broken too.” (Missy Altijd) Artinya: “Aku tak mengerti mengapa mereka menyebutnya patah hati. Buatku rasanya setiap bagian dari ragaku patah semua.”
  • * “Giving up doesn’t mean you are weak; sometimes it means that you are strong enough to let go.” (Anonim) Artinya: “Menyerah pada keadaan bukan berarti kau lemah; terkadang menyerah berarti kau cukup kuat untuk mengikhlaskannya pergi.”
  • * “Let your tears come. Let them water your soul.” (Eileen Mayhew) Artinya: “Biarkan air matamu mengalir. Biarkan air matamu membasahi jiwamu.”
  • * “Don’t cry when the sun is gone, because the tears won’t let you see the stars.” (Violeta Parra) Artinya: “Jangan menangis saat mentari pergi, karena air mata akan menghalangimu melihat bintang-bintang.”


Dengan artikel diatas, saya sebagai author minta maaf jika terjadi kesalahan penulisan, ejaan, danb sebagainya. Terima Kasih karena anda telah membaca artikel " ini.
ReadmoreKata-kata Patah Hati karena cinta dalam bahasa inggris

Cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris

Halo Sobat "http://onfa.blogspot.com/" kali ini kita akan membahas tentang cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris  yang sangat menarik untuk anda baca dan pelajari. semoga dengan artikel Cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris  yang telah saya tulis ini dapat membantu dan bermanfaat bagi anda. Langsung saja, bacalah artikel berikut :

Cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris

Cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris - dapat anda baca secara lengkap dan jelas cerita rakyat ini dalam versi bahasa inggrisnya di bawah ini :


Red Onion and Garlic 

Time ago in a village lived a family consisting of father, mother and a beautiful teenage girl named garlic. They are a happy family. Although garlic dad just ordinary traders, but they live in harmony and peace. But one day garlic mother was seriously ill and eventually died. Garlic is very sad as well as his father. 
In the village lived a widow who also has a son named Onion. Since the mother died Garlic, Shallots mother often visited the house of Garlic. He often brought food, helped clean the house or garlic Garlic and only accompany his father to talk. Garlic father finally thought that maybe it's better if he had married only with the mother Onion, Garlic not so lonely anymore. 
With consideration of garlic, then the father is married to the mother Garlic onion. Originally maternal red onion and red onion to the garlic is very good. But over time their true nature began to appear. They often berated garlic and gave him a job if the father Garlic weight is going to trade. Garlic should be doing all the housework, while the red onion and her mother sitting alone. Of course Garlic father did not know it, because garlic is never told. 
One day Garlic father fell ill and later died. Since then the red onion and mother increasingly powerful and persecution of Garlic. Garlic is almost never at rest. He had to get up before dawn, to prepare the water bath and breakfast for the red onion and mother. Then he had to feed livestock, watering gardens and washing clothes into a river. Then she still has to ironing, cleaning the house, and many other jobs. However Garlic always do their work with joy, because he hopes one day her stepmother would love him like his own biological child. 
This morning as usual Garlic carrying baskets of clothes to be washed in a river. With little singing him down a path at the edge of an ordinary small forest path. The day was very sunny weather. Garlic immediately wash all dirty clothes he was carrying. Because of too much fun, Garlic does not realize that one of the clothes have been washed away. Unfortunately the clothes are washed favorite shirt stepmother. When he realized it, clothes have been washed away stepmother too far. Garlic try down the river to look for him, but could not find it. In desperation, he returned home and told his mother.
"Basic careless!" Snapped her stepmother. "I do not want to know, anyway you should find that outfit! And do not dare go home if you have not found it. Understand? " 
Garlic is forced to obey the wishes ibun stepfather. He quickly washed down the river where he was. The sun had started rising, but the Garlic is yet to find his mother's clothes. He put his eye, carefully examining each overhung root that juts into the river, who knows his mother's clothes caught there. After a long walk and the sun was already leaning to the west, Garlic saw a shepherd who was bathing buffalo. Garlic then asked: "O my good uncle, if uncle saw the red dress who float through here? Because I had to find and bring him home. "" Yes I had seen my son. If you catch quickly, maybe you can catch him, "said the uncle.
"Well uncle, thank you!" Said Garlic and immediately ran back down. It was getting dark, Garlic is getting desperate. Soon night will come, and Garlic. From a distance looks light coming from a shack on the riverbank. Garlic immediately went to the house and knocked. "Excuse me ...!" Said Garlic. An old woman opened the door. "Who are you boy?" Asked the old woman. "My Grandma Garlic. Just now I'm looking for my mother who washed clothes. And now benighted. Can I stay here tonight? "Asked Garlic. "May my son. Are you looking for clothes that are red? "Asked grandma. "Yes Grandma. What ... grandmother found her? "Asked Garlic.
"Yes. Earlier dress snagged in front of my house. Unfortunately, though I liked the clothes, "said the grandmother. "Well I'll return it, but first you must accompany me here for a week. I have not talked with anyone, how? "Pleaded white nenek.Bawang thought for a moment. My grandmother looked lonely. Garlic also feel pity. "Okay Grandma, I'll stay with grandma for a week, from grandmothers do not get bored with me," said Garlic with a smile. 
During the week Garlic stay with the grandmother. Garlic each day helps with homework grandmother. Of course, the old woman feel good. Until eventually even been a week, my grandmother was summoned garlic. "Son, have you lived here a week. And I'm glad that you are a diligent and dutiful. For that according to my promise you can take your mother's clothes to go home. And another thing, you may choose one of two this pumpkin as a gift! "Said the grandmother. Garlic initially refused to be rewarded but still forced her grandmother. Finally Garlic select the smallest pumpkin. "I'm afraid not bring a big strong," he said. Grandma smiled and Garlic deliver up to the front of the house. 
At home, Garlic handed his stepmother's red shirt as he went into the kitchen to split the pumpkin yellow. Garlic surprise when the pumpkin was cut, turned out to contain gold jewelry in it very much. He screamed so happy and gave this magic to his stepmother and red onion with langsun greedy grab the gold and jewels. They forced the garlic to tell how he could get the prize. Garlic also told the truth.
Hear stories garlic, onion and her mother plan to do the same thing but this time the red onion will do it. In short, onion finally arrived at the old house on the edge of river. Like garlic, red onion was asked to accompany him for a week. Unlike an avid garlic, red onions for a week was just being lazy. If anything is done then the result is never good because it is always done poorly. Finally after a week's grandmother was allowed to leave the red onion. "Is not it supposed to be grandmother gave me a pumpkin as a gift because it keep you company for a week?" Asked a red onion. My grandmother was forced to send onions to choose one of two offered pumpkin. With the quick red onion take a big pumpkin and without saying thank you he walked away. 
Arriving at the house red onion soon meet his mother and happily shows gourd he was carrying. For fear of garlic will ask for parts, they sent garlic to go into a river. Then they split impatiently these pumpkins. But it was not gold jewels out of these pumpkins, but venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and others. The animals were immediately attacked the red onion and his mother to death. That is the reward of those who get greedy.



Dengan artikel diatas, saya sebagai author minta maaf jika terjadi kesalahan penulisan, ejaan, danb sebagainya. Terima Kasih karena anda telah membaca artikel Cerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris  ini.
ReadmoreCerita rakyat bawang merah bawang putih dalam bahasa inggris

Mengagumi Manuskrip Aceh di Malaysia



TERUS terang, ketakjuban akan manuskrip kuno mengenai Aceh di Malaysia-lah yang mendorong saya menulis risalah ini. Saya tulis naskah ini di notebook saat berada pas di depan ruang pamer Galeri Manuskrip Naskah Aceh. Galeri ini berada di Koleksi Manuskrip Perpustakaan Tun Seri Lanang (PTSL) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), tempat saya saat ini menimba ilmu untuk meraih gelar doktor.


Koleksi manuskrip ini terletak di lantai 6, lantai tertinggi di gedung PTSL. Penempatannya pada lantai tersebut, saya duga karena yang disimpan dalam ruangan ini merupakan bahan-bahan yang sangat bernilai tinggi.



Encik Syahrul, Encik Zul, dan Cik Ros adalah tiga pegawai perpustakaan bidang koleksi manuskrip yang telah membantu saya pada Oktober 2011 ini untuk melihat bentuk dan membaca sepintas manuskrip peninggalan Kerajaan Aceh pada masa-masa keemasan dulu, yakni abad ke 16-17 di PTSL UKM.


Alhasil tahulah saya bahwa Dr Abdullah Sani (2005), penulis buku “Nilai Sastra Ketatanegaraan dan Undang-Undang dalam Kanun Syarak Kerajaan Aceh dan Bustanus Salatin” yang diterbitkan UKM pernah “bertapa” menghabiskan waktunya setahun di ruangan ini untuk membuka, membedah, dan membolak-balik manuskrip Aceh.


Dari katalog yang saya ambil pada rak di sebelah kiri pintu masuk, ada sebuah buku katalog khusus tentang manuskrip naskah Aceh yang diberi judul “Manuskrip Naskah Acheh Satu Senarai”. Saya semakin takjub ketika membaca satu demi satu daftar katalog tersebut.


Ternyata, ada 29 judul manuskrip Aceh yang tersimpan rapi di rak dan beberapa di antaranya dipajang dalam meja kaca pada ruang galeri dalam ruangan di depan saya. Lima di antaranya adalah Sejarah Aceh, Kisah Riwayat Acheh, Kanun Syara’ Kerajaan Acheh Sultan Alauddin, Peta Acheh dan Susunan Kabinet Pemerintahan Acheh, Salasilah Taraf hulubalang serta Hukum Laut dan Dagang.



Barangkali bagi Ali Hasjmy (penulis buku Iskandar Muda Meukuta Alam, 1975), Mohammad Said (penulis buku Aceh Sepanjang Abad, 1961, 1979, 1995), Abdullah Sani (2005), M Adli Abdullah (kolumnis dan penulis buku Membedah Sejarah Aceh, 2011), dan banyak lagi lainnya yang telah menulis sejarah Aceh, akan menganggap temuan manuskrip tersebut hal yang biasa saja.


Tetapi bagi saya, melihat beberapa naskah manuskrip saja seperti Naskah Kanun Syara’ Kerajaan Acheh, Peta Acheh dan Susunan Kabinet Pemerintahan Acheh, Salasilah Taraf Hulubalang serta Hukum Laut dan Dagang, Hukum Kapal-kapal Asing yang Berlayar di Perairan Kerajaan Acheh, merupakan suatu ketakjuban yang luar biasa. Untuk pertama kalinya, wujud dari bacaan semua itu dapat saya lihat dan raba dalam bentuk yang konkret. Alhamdulillah, luar biasa.


Apa yang disebut oleh Sulaiman Tripa dalam bukunya Melawan Lupa (2011) memang patut dicerna bahwa sangatlah penting setiap kejadian dicatat dan ditulis agar dapat diingat kejadiannya dari masa ke masa. Tentulah manuskrip yang sangat bernilai tersebut merupakan peninggalan yang telah ditulis oleh pendahulu, karena mereka tahu pasti bahwa catatan mereka akan dipelajari dan dimanfaatkan oleh penerus mereka.

Tapi sayangnya, manuskrip-manuskrip tersebut saat ini berada di negeri tetangga Malaysia. Siapa yang akan mengembalikan bahan berharga tersebut ke Negeri Aceh secara utuh atau setidaknya dalam bentuk salinan atau kopiannya, lalu kita terjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Aceh, Melayu, Indonesia, dan Inggris?

T. Muttaqin Mansur
Dosen Fakultas Hukum Unsyiah,
Mahasiswa Doktoral Fakulti Undang-undang Universiti Kebangsaan,
ReadmoreMengagumi Manuskrip Aceh di Malaysia

“Kluet”, Tenggelam dalam Sejarah



Aceh Selatan dengan ibukota Tapaktuan merupakan salah satu kota sejarah di Provinsi Aceh. Banyak situs budaya yang layak dijadikan objek wisata islami di daerah itu. Sayangnya, semua terkesan ‘tenggelam’ atau hilang seiring waktu.


Tak hanya objek wisata, sejumlah suku, bahasa, termasuk wilayah pun terkesan dilupakan. Sebut saja di antaranya suku dan wilayah Kluet. Suku Kluet merupakan satu di antara dua suku lainnya—Aceh dan Aneuk Jamee—yang hidup di wilayah Aceh Selatan. Suku ini umumnya terdapat di wilayah Kluet Utara, Kluet Timur, Kluet Tengah, dan Kluet Selatan.



Sejarah Kluet


Menurut sejumlah literatur, kajian sejarah Kluet sangat erat kaitannya dengan Kerajaan Laut Bangko (Bukhari RA, dkk., 2008:11). Laut Bangko dulunya merupakan sebuah danau mini yang berlokasi di tengah hutan Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser, bagian barat, yang berbatasan dengan Kecamatan Bakongan dan Kecamatan Kluet Timur, saat ini.


Dikisahkan bahwa Kerajaan Laut Bangko ini pernah megah tempoe doeloe. Raja yang terakhir yang sempat memimpin kerajaan tersebut, menurut Bukhari, dkk (2008:12) bernama Malinda dengan permaisuri Rindi. Setelah rajanya meninggal, daerah ini tenggelam kala banjir besar melanda.


Penduduknya kemudian berusaha mencari daratan baru, sebagain ke Tanah Batak, sebagian ke Singkil, sebagian ada yang masih tetap pada lokasi semula dengan mencari dataran tinggi yang baru. Dari sini kemudian timbul pendapat terjadinya kemiripan bahasa antara bahasa Kluet dengan bahasa Batak, bahasa Alas, bahasa Karo, dan bahasa Singkil.


Sumber sejarah lisan (folklor) lainnya menyebutkan bahwa saat berkecamuk perang dahsyat di Aceh, ada sebuah komunitas masyarakat kala itu yang terpecah-pecah akibat menyelamatkan diri. Ada yang lari ke wilayah Kerajaan Kecil Chik Kilat Fajar di selatan Aceh, ada yang melarikan diri ke pedalaman-pedalaman lainnya dalam wilayah yang sama. Yang berada di wilayah Chik Kilat Fajar kemudian membuka komunitas sendiri, yaitu di kaki gunung Kalambaloh.


Sedangkan di wilayah lainnya, juga membuat komunitas sendiri pula sehingga masih terdapat kemiripan bahasa antara yang berada di wilayah selatan Aceh (Chik Kilat Fajar) dengan beberapa wilayah lainnya seperti Singkil, dan Tanoh Alas, termasuk Sumatera Utara.


Terlepas dari sejarah yang sulit ditemukan kekonkretannya itu, wilayah Kluet tetap dikaui sebagai satu kesatuan dalam Kabupaten Aceh Selatan. Pengakuan ini sejak daerah tingkat II Aceh Selatan masih tersebar hingga ke Singki, Subulussalam, dan Aceh Barat Daya. Hanya saja, mulanya Kluet masa itu dua wilayah saja, yakni Kluet Utara dan Kluet Selatan. Kluet Utara beribukotakan Kotafajar dan Kluet Selatan ibukotanya Kandang.


Seiring maraknya gejolak pemekaran di Aceh, tepatnya sejak Aceh memperoleh status Otonomi Khusus dan diperkuat oleh Undang-Undang Pemerintahan Aceh (UUPA), wilayah Kluet pun pecah menjadi lima: Kluet Utara (Kotafajar), Kluet Selatan (Kandang), Kluet Tengah (Menggamat), Kluet Timur (Duriankawan), dan Kluet Barat (Pasieraja).


Ironis, pemekarana wilayah ini ternyata menimbulkan konflik baru di wilayah Kluet. Pasieraja misalnya, karena tidak ada masyarakat Pasieraja yang berbahasa ibu bahasa Kluet, orang-orang di sini terkesan tidak mengakui wilayahnya sebagai wilayah Kluet. Bahkan, sempat tersebar isu, jika dipaksakan wilayah Pasieraja dengan nama Kluet Barat, masyarakat di sini akan minta wilayahnya dimasukkan ke Kecamatan Tapaktuan saja.



Karena itu, plang nama kantor camat wilayah ini dengan jelas ditulis “Camat Kecamatan Pasieraja”, bukan “Camat Kecamatan Kluet Barat dengan Ibukota Pasieraja”. Singkatnya, pecah wilayah Kluet, pecahkan pula masyarakatnya, kendati tidak sampai menimbulkan perang berdarah.


Adat dan Budaya


Sebenarnya, Kluet memiliki adat dan budaya yang heterogen. Hal ini karena wilayah tersebut didiami tiga suku: Kluet, Aceh, dan Aneuk Jamee. Tentu saja ini kekayaan tersendiri bagi masyarakat Kluet jika mereka mau bersatu-padu.


Namun, ternyata keberagaman kebudayaan ini pula yang menyebabkan perpecahan di antara masyarakat Kluet. Mereka yang berbahasa ibu bahasa Aceh seakan tidak mau disebut sebagai orang Kluet. Sebaliknya, mereka yang berbahasa ibu bahasa Kluet enggan disebut sebagai bagian dari Aceh. Inilah yang terjadi saat ini. Tidak seperti zaman dahulu, semuanya bersatu dalam bingkai kerjaan kecil, Chik Kilat Fajar.


Terlepas dari perpecahan internal itu, Kluet memiliki sejumlah adat dan budaya yang masih lestari. Adat dan budaya itu bertunas dan tumbuh dalam kearifan masyarakatnya secara umum. Adat istiadat tersebut terus kontinyu turun temurun.


Hal ini dapat dilihat pada prosesi perkawinan, sunat rasul, kematian, pengobatan, dan sebagainya. Bahkan, karena mata pencaharian masyarakat Kluet secara umum adalah bertani, adat turun ke sawah pun dimiliki masyarakat di sana yang mirip pula seperti adat meublang dalam kearifan Aceh secara luas.


Sastra Tutur



Selain itu, sejumlah sastra lisan pun masih hidup dan berkembang dalam komunitas ini. Sebut saja kebiasaan bersyair saat pesta perkawinan.


Dikenal dua macam syair dalam kearifan masyarakat Kluet: syair meubobo dan syair meukato. Syair mebobo biasanya digunakan oleh rombongan pengantar pengantin laki-laki (linto baro). Sedangkan syair meukato, merupakan pantun yang berbalas-balas antara rombongan mempelai laki dan rombongan mempelai perempuan.


Syair mebobo juga kerap digunakan saat melepas anak pergi ke rantau atau saat sunat rasul. Kebiasaan ini masih hidup dalam masyarakat Kluet hingga sekarang. Hanya saja, tidak semua orang dapat memainkan kedua syair tersebut. Butuh kemahiran tersendiri untuk melantunkan. Pemain syair ini serupa trobadur.


Kecuali itu, sastra lisan yang juga masih berkembang dalam masyarakat Kluet hingga saat ini adalah peribahasa. Peribahasa dalam bahasa Kluet disampaikan dengan dialek masing-masing daerah. Saat ini ditemukan tiga dialek bahasa Kluet, yakni dilek Menggamat, dialek Payadapur, dan dialek Krueng Kluet.


Dalam masyarakat ini berlaku juga mitos-mitos semisal meurampot—disamun makhluk halus. Namun demikian, nilai-nilai keislaman juga masih kokoh di sana, di samping nilai gotong royong dan sliaturrahmi. Karena itu, sangat disayangkan jika daerah ini kemudian terkesan abai dari perhatian pemerintah. Apalagi, di tengah kecamuk internal dalam masyarakat itu sendiri.
Harapan Baru


Terpilihnya Husein Yusuf sebagai bupati Aceh Selatan saat ini adalah harapan baru bagi masyarakat Kluet. Hal ini karena Husein adalah putra Kluet. Akan tetapi, sejumlah pesimistis Kluet akan terbangun juga mulai ditunjukkan oleh beberapa masyarakat. Terbukti, dua tahun periode Husein-Daska, belum menunjukkan perubahan apa-apa terhadap wilayah Kluet.


Jalan masuk ke rumah bupati sendiri, masih berlobang-lobang seperti sedia kala. Kluet pun akhirnya terkesan masih tergamak dalam sejarah masa silam. Entah sampai bila. Idimo Kak Kluat, mbang nalot sendah, pigan suang…

Herman RN, berasal dari Kluet

Readmore“Kluet”, Tenggelam dalam Sejarah

Negeri “Lam No” Dalam Riwayat

Negeri Daya kini disebut Aceh Jaya sebuah kabupaten pecahan Aceh Barat. Meski secara geografis dan administrasi telah dipisahkan, dua daerah ini memiliki pertalian sejarah antara Negeri Lan Na dan Pasir Karam.
Kabupaten Aceh Jaya terbentuk pada tahun 2002 dengan enam Kecamatan. Sebelah utara berbatasan dengan Aceh Besar dan Pidie; sebelah Selatan dengan Samudra Indonesia dan Aceh Barat; sebelah Timur dengan Pidie dan Aceh Barat; sebelah barat dengan Samudra Indonesia.


Secara geografis daerah ini memiliki 3.727,00 km. di Aceh Jaya hanya terdapat satu bahasa daerah yakni bahasa Aceh. Suku-suku lain selain Aceh yang berdiam di daerah ini yang pada awalnya berbahasa Indonesia, setelah agak lama menetap dan berbaur dengan masyarakat setempat, mereka juga berbahasa Aceh. Masyarakat Tionghoa yang kebetulan berdiam di daerah ini umumnya juga berbahasa Aceh sebagaimana masyarakat setempat.


Berawal dari Lhan Na


Di hulu Krueng Daya dulu ada sebuah dusun yang dinamai Lhan Na, sekarang disebut Lam No. Menurut H M Zainuddin dalam Tarich Aceh dan Nusantara (1961) penghuni dusun itu berasal dari Bangsa Lanun. Orang Aceh menyebutnya “lhan” atau bangsa Samang yang datang dari Semenanjung Malaka dan Hindia Belakang seperti Burma dan Campa. Kemudian ke hulu Krueng Daya itu juga datang orang-orang baru dari Aceh Besar, Pasai dan Poli (Pidie).


Pada abad XV terjadi perang antara Raja Pidie dengan Raja Pasai. Perang itu disulut oleh Raja Nagor bekas petinggi di Pasai. Dalam perang itu Pasai Kalah, Sultan Haidar Bahian Sjah tewas. Raja Nagor kemudian memerintah Pasai (1417). Beberapa keturunan Raja Pasai kemudian melakukan perpindahan. Sampai kesuatu tempat mereka kelelahan tak berdaya melanjutkan perjalanan.


Mereka pun mendirikan negeri baru di daerah tersebut, negeri itu diberinama Daya untuk mengenang ketakberdayaan mereka melanjutkan perjalanan. Cerita yang sama juga disebutkan dalam sebuah dongeng.
Menurut H M Zainuddin (1961), dahulu kala sekelompok orang datang ke negeri itu dengan perahu, sampai di muara sungai perahu mereka kandas. Mereka semua turun untuk mendorong perahu tersebut, tapi perahu itu tetap kandas. Mereka tidak berdaya lalu turun dan membuka perkampungan di sekitar muara sungai itu. Mereka pun menamai daerah itu dengan sebutan Daya.


Suatu ketika Raja Daya dan pasukannya melakukan pemeriksaan ke hulu sungai. Sampai di sana mereka mendapati sebuah perkampungan yang dihuni oleh orang yang mirip dengan bangsa Lanun dari Malaka dan Hindia Belakang. Mereka disebut orang Lhan.



Orang orang Lhan ini merupakan penduduk asli di sana, yang kala itu masih suka mengenakan pakaian dari kulit kayu dan kulit bintang yang tipis. Karena sudah lama mendiami tempat itu maka disebutlah mereka sebagai orang “Lhan Kana” atau “Lhan Na” yang artinya orang Lhan sudah ada disitu. Lama kelamaan terjadi perubahan pengucapan dari “Lhan Kana” menjadi “Lam Na” dan seterusnya ketika Belanda masuk ke Aceh ucapannya menjadi “Lam No”.


Masih menurut H M Zainudin, berdasarkan keterangan T Radja Adian keturunan Uleebalang (Zelfbestuurder) pada tahun 1945 diceritakan, Negeri Daya pernah diperintah oleh Pahlawan Syah, seorang raja yang pernah berperang dengan Poteu Meureuhom. Pahlawan Syah yang dikenal dengan sebutan Raja Keuluang merupakan orang yang kebal terhadap senjata apa pun, ia tidak bias ditaklukkan.



Ia orang yang sangat kuat. Kekuatannya itu diyakini masih menyisakan bekas berupa bekas tapak kakinya. Saat ia mencabut batang kelapa kakinya terbenam ke tanah. Tapak kaki itu disebut-sebut berada di Kuala Daya.


Disebut sebagai Raja Keuluang karena Pahlawan Syah berpostur tinggi besar, ketika dipanggil untuk menghadiri rapat (Meusapat) oleh Raja, peraturan yang diberikan Pahlawan Syah dan daerah yang dipimpinya selalu berbeda dengan daerah lain. Ia banyak mendapat keluangan, maka digelarlah dia Raja Keuluang.


Negeri Keuluang itu terdiri dari Keuluang, Lam Besoe, Kuala Daya dan Kuala Unga. Raja Keuluang meninggal setelah berperang dengan Poteumeureuhom. Raja yang kebal senjata itu berhasil ditangkap ketika daerahnya ditaklukkan. Ia meninggal dalam ikatan rantai besi.


Masa pemerintahan Raja Keuluang atau Pahlawan Syah menurut pemeriksaan Controleur Vetner di calang pada tahun 1938, diperkirakan antara tahun 1500 M sampai 1505 M. seber lain adalah T R Adian, sebagaimana dikutip H M Zainuddin. Menurutnya, pertalian keluarga Raja Keuluang tersebar dari Tanoeh Abee Sagi XXII Mukim Seulimum, Krueng Sabe dekat Calang dan Negeri Bakongan, Aceh Selatan. “Kalau naskah ini serta keterangan T R Adian itu kita hubungkan dengan makam Sultan Ali Riayat Sjah atau Marhum Daya, jang menurut pemeriksaan Prof Dr Mussain Djajadiningrat, Marhum Daja meninggal dalam tahun 1508,” tulis H M Zainuddin dalam Tarich Aceh dan Nusantara (1961).


Sementara lainnya, di Kuala Ungan dekat Daya ada satu kuburan raja yang mengkat pada tahun 1497, tapi belum jelas makam siapa apakah makam Marhum Unga atau Marhum Daya. Masih juga belum jelas apakah Marhung Unga itu adalah Pahlawan Syah yang disebut sebagai Raja Keuluang, anak raja Pasai yang pertama membuka Negeri Daya.


Kemudian datang Marhum Daja Sulthan Ali Riajat Sjah jang namanja Uzir, anak dari Sulthan Inajat Sjah ibnu Abdullah Al Malikul Mubin, jang bersaudara dengan Sulthan Muzaffar Sjah. Raja di Atjeh Besar dan bersaudara pula dengan Munawar Sjah Raja di Pidie. Diyakinkan negeri Keluang/Daja itu berdiri pada akhir abad ke XV oleh Marhum Unga, bias jadi juga dibangun oleh Marhum Daya.


Setelah Negeri Daya maju dengan berbagai hasil bumi, pada akhir abad ke XVI datang ke sana orang orang Portugis, Arab, Spanyol dan Tionghoa untuk membeli rempah-rempah. Setelah itu datang juga orang Belanda, Inggris dan Perancis. Malah sampai kini di Lam No terdapat keturunan Portugis.



Negeri Pasir Karam


Di sekitar Negeri Daya juga pernah terkenal Negeri Pasir Karam, negeri yang kemudian diyakini sebagai asal mula Aceh Barat. Kisah ini bermula dari kedatangan orang Minangkabau yang lari dari negerinya membuat perkebunan di daerah itu maju. Ungkapan “Di sikolah kito balabueh” disebut-sebut sebagai asal mula nama Meulaboh.


Hal ini sesuai dengan pendapat HM. Zainuddin dalam buku Tarikh Atjeh dan Nusantara (1961). Menurut beliau, asal mula Meulaboh adalah Negeri Pasir Karam. Negeri itu dibangun dibangun pada masa Sultan Saidil Mukamil (1588-1604). Pada masa Kerajaan Aceh diperintah oleh Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) negeri itu ditambah pembangunannya.


Di negeri itu dibuka perkebunan merica, tapi negeri ini tidak begitu ramai karena belum dapat menandingi Negeri Singkil yang banyak disinggahi kapal dagang untuk mengambil muatan kemenyan dan kapur barus. Kemudian pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Djamalul Alam, Negeri Pasir Karam kembali ditambah pembangunannya dengan pembukaan kebun lada.


Untuk mengolah kebun-kebun itu didatangkan orang-orang dari Pidie dan Aceh Besar disusul kemudian dengan kedatangan orang-orang Minangkabau yang lari dari negerinya akibat pecahnya perang Padri (1805-1836). Sampai di Teluk Pasir Karam pendatang dari Minangkabau itu sepakat untuk berlabuh. “Di sikolah kito balabueh,” kata mereka. Semenjak itulah Negeri Pasir Karam dikenal dengan nama Meulaboh dari asal kata balabueh, atau berlabuh.


Pendatang dari Minangkabau itu kemudian hidup berbaur dengan masyarakat setempat. Di antara mereka malah ada yang menjadi pemimpin di antaranya Datuk Machudum Sakti dari Rawa, Datuk Raja Agam dari Luhak Agam. Datuk Raja Alam Song Song Buluh dari Sumpu.



Mereka menebas hutan mendirikan pemukiman yang menjadi tiga daerah, Datuk Machudum Sakti membuka negeri di Merbau, Datuk Raja Agam di Ranto Panyang dan Datuk Raja Alam Song Song Buluh di Ujong Kala yang menikah dengan anak salah seorang yang berpengaruh di sana. Sama dengan masyarakat setempat, ketiga Datuk tersebut juga memerintahkan warganya untuk membuka ladang sehingga kehidupan mereka jadi makmur.


Ketiga Datuk itu pun kemudian sepakat untuk menghadap Sultan Aceh, Sultan Alaiddin Muhammad Daud Syah untuk memperkenalkan diri. Ketika menghadap Sultan, masing-masing Datuk membawakan satu botol mas urai sebagai buah tangan. Mereka meminta kepada raja Aceh agar memberikan batas-batas negeri mereka. Permintaan itu dikabulkan, Raja Alam Song Song Buluh kemudian diangkat menjadi Uleebalang Meulaboh dengan ketentuan wajib mengantar upeti tiap tahun kepada bendahara kerajaan.


Para Datuk itu pun setiap tahun mengantar upeti untuk Sultan Aceh, tapi lama-kelamaan mereka merasa keberatan untuk menyetor langsung ke kerajaan, karena itu mereka meminta kepada sultan Aceh saat itu seorang wakil sultan di Meulaboh sebagai penerima upeti. Permintaan ketiga Datuk itu dikabulkan oleh Sultan dan dikirimlah ke sama Teuku Chiek Purba Lela yang menjadi wazir Sultan Aceh untuk pemerintahan dan menerima upeti-upeti dari Uleebalang Meulaboh.


Para Datuk tersebut merasa sangat senang dengan kedatangan utusan Sultan yang ditempatkan sebagai wakilnya di Meulaboh itu. Mereka pun kemudian kembali meminta pada Sultan Aceh untuk mengirim satu wakil sultan yang khusus mengurus masalah perkara adat dan pelanggaran dalam negeri. Permintaan itu juga dikabulkan. Sultan Aceh mengirim Penghulu Sidik Lila Digahara ke sana dan berwenang menyidik segala hal yang berkaitan dengan pelanggaran undang-undang negeri.


Permintaan itu terus berlanjut. Kepada Sultan Aceh para Datuk itu meminta agar dikirimkan seorang ulama untuk mengatur persoalan nikah, pasah, dan hukum Syariat. Sultan Aceh mengirim Teungku Tjut Din, seorang ulama yang bergelar Almuktasimu-binlah, untuk menjadi kadhi Sultan Aceh di Meulaboh.


Meulaboh bertambah maju ketika Kerajaan Aceh dipimpin Sultan Ibrahim Mansjur Sjah (1858-1870). Karena Minangkabau saat itu sudah dikuasai Belanda, semakin banyaklah orang dari Minangkabau yang pindah ke sana. Di tanah Minangkabau mereka tidak lagi bebas berkebun setelah Belanda menerapkan peraturan oktrooi dan cultuurstelsel yang mewajibkan warga menjual hasil kebunnya kepada Belanda.


Di Meulaboh para pendatang dari Minangkabau itu membuka perkebunan lada yang kemudian membuat daerah itu disinggahi kapal-kapak Inggris untuk membeli rempah-rempah. Karena semakin maju maka dibentuklah federasi Uleebalang yang megatur tata pemerintahan negeri. Federasi itu kemudian dinamai Kaway XVI yang diketuai oleh Uleebalang Keujruen Chiek Ujong Kalak.


Federasi itu disebut Kaway XVI karena dibentuk oleh enam belas Uleebalang, yaitu Uleebalang Tanjong, Ujong Kalak, Seunagan, Teuripa, Woyla, Peureumbeu, Gunoeng Meuh, Kuala Meureuboe, Ranto Panyang, Reudeub, Lango Tangkadeuen, Keuntjo, Gume/Mugo, Tadu, serta Seuneu’am.


Selain federasi Kaway XVI, di perbatasan Aceh Barat dan Pidie juga terbentuk federasi XII yang terdiri dari 12 Uleebalang yaitu: Pameu, Ara, Lang Jeue, Reungeuet, Geupho, Reuhat, Tungkup/Dulok, Tanoh Mirah/Tutut, Geumpang, Tangse, Beunga, serta Keumala. Federasi XII ini dikepalai oleh seorang Kejreuen yang berkedudukan di Geumpang.

Iskandar Norman


ReadmoreNegeri “Lam No” Dalam Riwayat

Hijrah : Perjuangan Moral, Sumbangan Penting Bagi Peradaban Umat Manusia

Apa yang dapat dicatat dari tahun baru Islam? Sebuah perjuangan moral! Ya, sebuah kisah dinamis tentang perjuangan dari sebuah kelompok masyarakat baru yang didasarkan atas nilai-nilai idealisme dan moralitas yang tinggi. Mereka adalah bagian dari kelompok yang sadar atas keadaan masyarakat yang dianggapnya telah terjadi banyak penyimpangan. Kritik pun, mereka berikan atas sebuah kondisi masyarakat yang dinilai timpang.

Ada struktur sosial yang timpang, dimana manusia diperlakukan berdasarkan garis keturunan, kekuasaan dan harta kekayaannya. Ada penindasan antar sesama, dimana budak belian dianggap sah diperlakukan apapun oleh mereka yang memilikinya. Tak ubahnya kepemilikan barang yang tidak memiliki sedikitpun hak kemerdekaan. Kecuali, hanya dimanfaatkan dan diperjualbelikan sesuka hati mereka yang memilikinya

Ada penistaan terhadap kaum perempuan, dimana mereka diperlakukan tidak sama sebagaimana manusia laki-laki yang dianggap memiliki hak yang istimewa dan berlebih. Kelahiran bayi perempuan dianggap sebagai sebuah aib keluarga sehingga pembunuhan atas mereka dianggap sebagai sesuatu hal yang biasa saja. Kaum perempuan hanya menerima keputusan dari kaum laki-laki, harus siap diperlakukan apapun, termasuk dikawini secara poligami yang hampir tanpa batas.

Kemiskinan menjadi fenomena yang biasa saja, sebagai akibat ketimpangan dari struktur sosial ekonomi yang tidak adil. Perilaku curang dalam praktek jual beli barang merupakan sesuatu yang dianggap dapat dibenarkan. Pengabaian atas mereka yang lemah dan miskin dianggap sebuah kewajaran belaka, di tengah sistem masyarakat yang memuja kebendaan dan kemewahan duniawi.

Kebanggaan kelompok menjadi ikatan yang semu sebagai wujud persaudaraan yang mengagungkan atas nama garis keturunan dan kabilah yang sempit. Sistem masyarakat yang timpang, kemudian seolah memperoleh pembenaran dari sistem kepercayaan yang dibangun, yang secara simbolik terwujudkan dalam bentuk patung-patung berhala yang saat itu mengelilingi Ka’bah. Maka, sempurnalah sudah, sebuah sistem masyarakat yang tidak adil, zalim, dan tidak beradab dengan berbalut klaim atas nilai-nilai ketuhanan yang timpang.

Muhammad tampil sebagai sosok pimpinan yang berupaya memberikan penyadaran atas masyarakatnya yang timpang. Misi ilahiah dalam kerasulan dirinya, tak lain adalah perubahan sosial, berupa penolakan atas segala bentuk ketimpangan sosial tersebut. Ajaran tauhid yang mengajak pada kemurnian dalam mengesakan Tuhan direfleksikan secara langsung dalam kehidupan konkret masyarakatnya di atas moral yang tinggi, agar berlaku adil, berbuat baik, mengajarkan persamaan antar sesama umat manusia, menebar perdamaian dan manjalin persaudaraan yang sejati.

Kesadaran kolektif, berupa gugatan dan kritik atas kondisi masyarakat yang tidak adil merupakan esensi dari gerakan perpindahan atau hijrah mereka dari Makkah ke Madinah, 1433 tahun yang lalu menurut kalender bulan (lunar). Ketika ajakan atau seruan kepada nilai-nilai ilahi yang adil dan benar melahirkan berbagai reaksi tindakan yang bersifat represif dari masyrakatnya sendiri, maka hijrah merupakan wujud nyata dari sebuah keteguhan sikap dan keyakinan baru yang tidak kenal kompromi. Sejarah mencatat bahwa nilai-nilai moralitas yang tinggi mampu dipegang teguh oleh sekelompok masyarakat yang ingin keluar dari sistem sosial yang timpang dan menindas atas sesama.

Keyakinan atas sikap yang benar dan adil inilah yang merupakan esensi dari ajaran tauhid dalam Islam, sehingga melahirkan peristiwa hijrah pertama, yang kemudian dijadikan patokan sebagai pertanda awal dimulainya tahun baru Islam, 1 Muharam 1 Hijriyyah. Pada awal-awal kelahirannya, ajaran Islam memang merupakan ajaran konkret yang dinamis atas sebuah gagasan mengenai sistem masyarakat baru yang adil dan beradab. Bukan, sebuah ajaran mengenai serangkaian ritus keagamaan, yang sebenarnya baru berkembang setelah gagasan baru yang berakar pada ajaran tauhid mulai tumbuh secara memadai di masyarakat Madinah.

Jadi, apa yang dapat kita catat dari tahun baru Hijriyyah? Hijrah, jelas merupakan bagian dari penggalan sejarah perjuangan yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan masyarakat Muslim. Bahkan, hijrah dapat dianggap pula sebagai bagian dari perjuangan atas nilai-nilai kemanusiaan universal yang berlaku hingga sekarang. Sejarah akan terus mencatat dengan tinta emas, bahwa hijrah adalah tonggak sejarah yang teramat penting dan revolusioner dalam membangun sebuah peradaban umat manusia adil, penuh kedamaian dan persaudaraan sejati. Dalam konteks inilah, umat Islam telah memberikan sumbangan yang sangat berharga bagi peradaban dunia sepanjang masa.

Umat Islam telah mempertunjukkan sebuah peristiwa bersejarah yang sangat berharga bagi umat manusia. Sudah sepatutnya, sebagai bagian dari masyarakat yang membenarkan atas ajaran tauhid, kita bisa terus menghayati dan mengamalkan pesan penting dari sejarah mengenai hijrah tersebut. Semoga, bangsa Indonesia pun dapat memetik hikmah dari peristiwa hijrah. Bahwa kebenaran, keadilan, perdamaian dan persaudaraan harus selalu kita tegakkan di tengah-tengah masyarakat.

Selamat tahun baru Islam, 1 Muharam 1433 Hijriyyah.

Sri Endang Susetiawati

ReadmoreHijrah : Perjuangan Moral, Sumbangan Penting Bagi Peradaban Umat Manusia

Nabi Adam, dari JANNAH singgah di SUMATERA ?

Ketika Nabi Adam dan isterinya, melanggar aturan ALLAH, maka dikeluarkanlah keduanya dari Jannah. Ada banyak pendapat tentang dimana tempat Nabi Adam dan isterinya turun.

Seorang ilmuwan Belanda Van K. Razanhover berpendapat bahwa Adam diturunkan di sebuah daratan yang dikenal dengan nama Yetch. Yetch merupakan sebuah daratan yang luas, yang kemudian tenggelam, dan menyisakan daratan yang kita kenal sekarang, sebagai negeri Belanda.

Menurut Razanhover, keturunan Adam pada awalnya adalah makhluk-makhluk raksasa, kemudian pada perkembangannya menjadi kerdil seperti sekarang ini. Dan kehidupan manusia menurutnya, sudah dimulai sejak jutaan tahun yang silam.
Pendapat Razanhover mengenai awal kehidupan umat manusia, nampaknya sejalan dengan pendapat Dr. Musthafa Mahmud, di dalam bukunya ”Bacaan Masa Depan”, beliau berpendapat bahwa ”Umur manusia di muka bumi lebih dari satu juta tahun,barangkali sepuluh juta tahun”.
Sementara itu, seorang penulis Irlandia, Lars F. Hoglund, berpendapat bahwa tempat turunnya Adam tidak lain adalah di wilayah Skandinavia (Finlandia, Island, Swedia, Denmark dan Norwegia). (sumber : Buku ”Para Penghuni Bumi Sebelum Kita”, karangan Muhammad Isa Dawud).

Berdasarkan riwayat dari Ibnu Abi Hatim, yang diterimanya dari Abdullah bin Umar, menyatakan bahwa Adam turun ke dunia di Bukit Shafa, sedangkan Hawa turun di Bukit Marwah. Akan tetapi, riwayat dari Ibnu Abi Hatim ini terdapat versi lain, yang menyatakan bahwa tempat turunnya Nabi Adam di Bumi, berada di antara negeri Makkah dengan Thaif.

Di sisi lain, menurut riwayat Ibnu Asakir yang diperoleh dari Ibnu Abbas, menyatakan bahwa Nabi Adam turun di Hindustan dan Hawa turun di Jeddah. Dimana makna Jeddah berasal dari kata Jiddah, yang berarti nenek perempuan.

Syaikh Yusuf Tajul Khalwati berpendapat, Nabi Adam turun di Pulau Serendib. Beliau ketika itu menduga, Pulau Serendib adalah Pulau Ceylon (Sri Langka). (sumber : Tafsir Al Azhar, Juzu’ I, tulisan Buya HAMKA)

Tetapi berdasar penelitian, kata Serendib adalah bahasa Sanskerta yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab, aslinya berasal dari kata Swarna Dwipa atau Sumatera, yang merupakan sebagian dari kawasan Keping Sunda (Sunda Plat).

WaLlahu a’lamu bishshawab


Catatan :


Meskipun ada kemungkinan Nabi Adam turun di Pulau Sumatera, namun awal perkampungan umat manusia bermula dari dataran Bakkah. Di dataran inilah, Nabi Adam dan Isterinya mulai membangun peradaban umat manusia.Bakkah adalah nama kuno untuk daerah Makkah dan sekitarnya. Disanalah mula-mula tempat peribadatan didirikan (QS.3:96), dan Bakkah (Makkah) disebut juga Ummul Qura atau Ibu Negeri (QS.42:7).Di sekitar Bakkah (Makkah), yakni Arafah, dinamai ‘tempat membanjirnya manusia (tempat bertolaknya orang-orang banyak)‘, dikarenakan berasal dari tempat inilah, manusia kemudian ‘membanjiri‘ pelosok bumi.
Sebagaimana firman-Nya…


… afiidhuu min haitsu afaadha n-naas…”

yang bermakna

”… membanjirlah kamu dari tempat membanjirnya manusia…” (QS. Al Baqarah (2) ayat 199)

ReadmoreNabi Adam, dari JANNAH singgah di SUMATERA ?